What is CBD?
Cannabidiol (CBD) is an organic compound found in the cannabis plant, also known as hemp, Cannabis sativa, with up to 0.2% THC concentration. It is the second most abundant compound, representing a total of 40% of the extracts. Due to the similarity and molecular ease of synthetic conversion, CBD was initially thought to be a normal precursor of THC. Cannabidiol is one of 113 cannabinoid chemicals found in the cannabis plant, many of which are being investigated for potential health benefits. Being rich in CBD, hemp is used to obtain CBD oil. CBD cannabis oils contain varying concentrations of cannabidiol, depending on the purpose of use.
Unlike marijuana in which the main psychoactive compound is THC, CBD naturally contains extremely low concentrations of THC.
History of CBD and Cannabis
Cannabis and hemp were cultivated for the first time in Taiwan 10.000 years ago and had many functions,including fabrication of cloth,rope,paper,medicine and supliments.Cannabidiol (CBD) had started to be studied in the middle of the 18th century.Once introduced in american pharmacies in 1839 by William Brooke O’Shaughnessy,the cannabis extracts were startedd to by known primaraly as a medicine.Similar products were available in Europa as well.In the 19th century the British Empire used cannabis tincture to treat nausea and vomating.After 1900, the recreational use of cannabis experienced a boom that determined in 1961 placing this plant on the list of prohibited drugs.From that moment on,the use of cannabis for medical purposes has been banned.CBD was first isolated in 1940 from ethanolic hemp extract and Egyptian cannabis indica resin, but the chemical structure and stereochemistry were not elucidated until 1964.
Canabidiol molecular structure
Cannabidiol connects to certain receptors in the human body through the endocannabinoid system (ECS) to produce its effects. The human body naturally produces cannabinoids, having two receptors for them: CB1 and CB2. These receptors are built to interact with endocannabinoids. The endocannabinoid system is essentially the system that processes the cannabinoids introduced into the body.
CB1 receptors are located throughout the body, but most are found in the brain. They have the role of regulating certain functions of the body, such as movement and coordination, pain, emotions, mood, concentration, appetite, memory.Most CB2 receptors are located in the immune system, having a direct influence on pain and inflammation.
Cannabidiol does not interact with either type of receptor, but rather causes the body to use more cannabinoids that are already naturally present in the body. CBD helps maintain various psychological processes, interacting with receptors in the nervous and immune systems.
How is CBD presented today?
Today CBD is found in various styles from gummy-bears to face creams and e-liquids.More and more people are consuming CBD dor various reasons such as stress relief,chronic pain,skin care,anxiety,insomnia.The CBD market has grown very much in the last few years and society is starting to see the benefits of this product.
Cannabidiol has been used by professional and amateur athletes across disciplines and countries, with the World Anti-Doping Agency removing CBD from its banned substances list. The United States Anti-Doping Agency and United Kingdom-Anti-Doping Agency do not have anti-CBD policies, with the latter stating that, CBD is not currently listed on the World Anti-Doping Agency Prohibited List. As a result, it is permitted to use in sport, though the intended benefits are unclear and not backed by clinical evidence.. All other cannabinoids (including but not limited to cannabis, hashish, marijuana, and THC) are prohibited in-competition. The intention of the regulations is to prohibit cannabinoids that activate the same receptors in the brain as activated by THC. In 2019, the cannabis manufacturer, Canopy Growth, acquired majority ownership of BioSteel Sports Nutrition, which is developing CBD products under endorsement by numerous professional athlete.The National Hockey League Alumni Association began a project with Canopy Growth to determine if CBD or other cannabis products might improve neurological symptoms and quality of life in head-injured players. Numerous professional athletes use CBD, primarily for treating pain.
Foods and beverages
Cannabinoids, Cannabidiol (CBD), THC, HEMP, Marijuana, Cannabis
Intro to cannabis and health benefits
Products from the cannabis plant offer many health benefits of interest to ApoE4 carriers and can enhance a program addressing lifestyle strategies. Cannabis products come in many forms with numerous delivery methods: tablets/capsules, edibles, beverages, vaping oil, dermal lotions/patches, sublingual tinctures, suppositories, and more, no need to smoke a joint. THC is a cannabinoid that is the psychoactive component of marijuana that produces a high. CBD, another cannabinoid, modulates several biological functions and, in the right percentages, can counteract the psychoactive effects of THC. Cannabis products come in various ratios of CBD to THC to best target the effect a person is trying to obtain. Many products with THC produce a high, but some do not, especially those with a high CBD to low THC content. CBD products from hemp do not produce a high.
Cannabis is both hemp and marijuana, each containing a number of cannabinoids
The cited medical benefits of cannabinoids are many but it should be noted that legal constraints and the lack of profit incentive for drug companies, have constrained medical studies. Of the studies that exist, many are indicative of medical benefit, but often conclude further study is needed.
Fully exploiting the medical benefits of cannabis products may be long in coming, if ever. Pharmaceutical companies can’t patent a natural substance unless they turn it into a synthetic chemical first. Doctors in the United States can’t prescribe drugs that aren’t approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and doctors rarely recommend therapies that fall outside approved protocols and/or are unfamiliar with nontraditional therapies.
Nevertheless, many studies are encouraging, and there are even more anecdotes citing benefits. For many of us, there’s no time to wait for FDA approval, thus necessitating self-research for potential beneficial therapies. The deeper dive section below provides papers supporting the claims of some of the health benefits of cannabis products/cannabinoids.There are no known studies that have singled out the ApoE allele to determine the effects of cannabinoids on the endocannabinoid system within ApoE4 carriers. However, cannabinoids have been cited to aid with numerous health issues for the general population, and these are the areas of greatest interest to ApoE4s:
Decreases Amyloid-beta plaque
Offers neuroprotection and helps generate new neurons
There are other health conditions where cannabinoids can be beneficial, such as cancer, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), fibromyalgia, epilepsy, and more.
Cannabis variations and their benefits
The plant family that includes both marijuana and hemp.
A cannabis plant that possesses psychoactive qualities (produces a high). Used recreationally for the high and for medicinal purposes.
Marijuana is illegal in all 50 states per federal law. It is recognized as legal for medical purposes (medical marijuana card required) in over half the 50 states. Marijuana is legal for recreational purposes in some states, per state law.
Marijuana comes from two strains: indica and sativa. Sativa strains produce more of a euphoric high, is a mood elevator, and therapeutically relieves stress. Indica strains relax muscles and work as general analgesics (pain relief), also helps with sleep.
Each state has its own unique list of conditions that qualify a person for a medical marijuana card, but the most common medical conditions are:
Epilepsy and Seizure disorders – cannabidiol (CBD) has been found to significantly reduce seizure frequency
Cancer – a balance of THC and CBD helps with pain, nausea, and appetite loss
Multiple Sclerosis – aids with pain, insomnia, inflammation, muscle spasms, abdominal discomfort, and depression,
HIV/AIDS – for appetite loss, nausea, and fatigue
Neurodegenerative Diseases (Lou Gehrig’s Disease (ALS), Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s) – improves cognition and mobility, relieving spasticity and rigid muscles, and more
Pain – combining both THC and CBD tends to be most effective
Nausea – THC helps, although too much worsens it
Cachexia/Wasting Syndrome – especially for THC rich varieties
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder – high CBD varieties can aid with anxiety and panic episodes
For more in information, see Most Common Qualifying Conditions for Medical Cannabis
However, research into marijuana for medical application is restricted. The US Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) considers marijuana a Schedule I drug, the same as heroin, LSD, and ecstasy, thus identifying it as likely to be abused and lacking in medical value. Because of that, researchers need a special license to study it. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved marijuana for medical treatment purposes although it has approved drugs derived from the marijuana plant. Marinol and Casemet are man-made versions of THC used to treat nausea and lack of appetite. Epidiolox is for treatment of seizures associated with two rare and severe forms of epilepsy. A 4th drug, Sativex, a cannabis extract containing THC and CBD in a 1-to-1 ratio, is in clinical trials in the U.S. for pain with breast cancer. Sativex is already approved in more than 20 countries to treat muscle spasms from Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and cancer pain.
Even in states where marijuana is legal for recreational purposes, there are laws regarding age of consumption, where it can be consumed, restrictions on driving under the influence, and interstate transport. Employers and landlords may additionally dictate consumption restrictions regardless of state law. States that allow medical marijuana do tend to reciprocally respect medical marijuana cards from other states but transport through non-recognizing states or flying with marijuana is illegal. The U.S Transportation Security Administration (TSA) does not allow marijuana or products derived from marijuana on any flights.
Although legal, quality can be a concern. Especially when seeking assistance for medical conditions, it’s important to know that the product being consumed is free of harmful chemicals and toxins. There are no federal regulatory protections. Marijuana is now being grown using many modern day farming methods which includes growing plants in soils devoid of nutrient content and adding chemicals for rapid growth, pest resistance, and ease of harvest. Marijuana cannot be labeled “organic” by the US Department of Agriculture because it is still illegal at the federal level. Testing regulations vary from state to state, see: Leafly’s state-by-state guide to cannabis testing regulations
Third parties have taken on the organic certification role for marijuana. Additionally, independent laboratories can test for potency/homogeneity and cannabinoid analysis quantitation. They can also test for potentially harmful contaminants, such as Salmonella, E. coli, as well as total yeast and mold quantification. There are poor quality products out there, so buyer beware, but a reputable cannabis company will be able to offer information regarding the content of their products.
A variety of the cannabis sativa plant that is grown for various commercial and industrial uses. Although marijuana and industrial hemp are both members of the cannabis family and both contain tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), they are distinct strains. Hemp has a near negligible level of THC. A person cannot get high from the THC content in hemp nor can drug testing detect THC from hemp products. Hemp can be grown to make fabrics, construction materials, biofuels, plastic composites and more. Hemp products for individual consumption include hemp protein powder, hemp seed oil, Hemp extract/CBD oil, hemp lotion, hemp hearts, even hemp beer. All can be purchased legally, except for the beer if underage. Just because a product comes from hemp doesn’t mean it has substantive cannabidiol (CBD) or other cannabinoid content.
Or more technically correct, phytocannabinoids are the active ingredients found in cannabis (phyto means from a plant). The most prevalent and the most well-understood phytocannabinoids are THC and CBD, but there are over 100 other active cannabinoids in cannabis.
Some cannabinoids and their benefits. Source: https://bengreenfieldfitness.com/article/supplements-articles/how-to-use-cbd-oil/
Cannabis is not the only plant to produce phytocannabinoids, an increasing number of plant-derived natural products are being discovered that bind to or interact with the cannabinoid receptors in the body. For more info: Phytocannabinoids beyond the Cannabis plant – do they exist? (Jürg Gertsch, et al 2010), Check Out These Non-Marijuana Plants That Contain Cannabinoids and 9 Plants That Contain Therapeutic Cannabinoids
Cannabinoids are also produced naturally in the body, see endocannabinoids below. While the functions of these cannabinoids within the body are wide-ranging, it is believed that their primary function is to promote homeostasis (a relatively stable state of equilibrium).
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, or Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, or more simply and commonly, tetrahydrocannabinol. THC is a cannabinoid. THC is the principal psychoactive component of cannabis, it’s what produces the high. Marijuana of the 1960s typically had a THC content of between 3% to 5%, today THC content has been cited to be as much as 35%.
Cannabidiol, a cannabinoid. CBD is non-psychoactive, it does not have the intoxicating effects of THC. CBD can actually counteract the psychoactivity of THC and combat unpleasant effects of THC such as paranoia, anxiety, over-excitability, or memory-loss. CBD acts on completely different receptors and enzymes than THC. CBD is associated with a long list of health benefits and is considered the healing component of the cannabis plant.
CBD is found in both marijuana and hemp, although percentages vary widely.
Historically, marijuana was cultivated for THC content, but when CBD was found to have positive benefits, some marijuana strains started being cultivated for CBD content too. Marijuana products are sold with various CBD to THC ratios but can only be sold in dispensaries in states where marijuana is legal for medical and/or recreational purposes. However, these marijuana derived products can be freely and legally researched on the internet before entering a dispensary.
In the United States, CBD products from hemp proliferated after signing the Agricultural Act of 2014 which authorized growing industrial hemp, but the legalities were not crystal clear. The 2018 Farm Bill eliminated a great deal of this legal confusion by removing hemp from the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). Hemp is now officially an agricultural commodity, not a controlled substance. Additionally, hemp was redefined in the bill to include extracts, cannabinoids and derivatives. As long as the THC level is at or below 0.3% the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) can no longer interfere with interstate commerce of hemp products, CBD products derived from hemp can be freely purchased over the internet and consumed.
While hemp derived products such as CBD oil are legal, the FDA’s stance remains that it cannot be marketed as a food or dietary supplement. Businesses offering such products have learned to be very careful with how they label and describe their products on the internet. However, thoughts at the FDA appear to be changing. Shortly after the 2018 Farm Bill signing, a letter was released by FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, which for the first time contained a clear new path toward FDA’s permanent and formal acceptance of hemp-derived CBD as a food additive or nutritional supplement.
Hemp Extract (CBD oil from hemp) is different than Hemp Oil.
CBD products typically come as pills/capsules, as oils with droppers for oral ingestion, sprays and tinctures for absorption in the mouth, and as vaping oil. CBD creams, gels, and lotions are also available for external application to address muscle and joint pain. CBD is non-addictive and can’t be overdosed. It can be ingested safely, although at high doses it can cause gastrointestinal issues and affect certain medications.
When looking to buy CBD oil, pay attention to detail. Just because something is made from hemp doesn’t mean it contains CBD. If “CBD oil” is typed into an internet search box, many hemp oil products will show up. Since passage of the 2018 Farm Bill, most products sold as Hemp derived CBD oil are now marketed as Hemp Extract. Hemp oil is typically made from hemp seeds, CBD oil from hemp is made from the flowers, leaves, and to a minor extent, the stalk. Hemp seed oil contains minimally low CBD content. Pay attention to CBD content per serving and the cost per dose as both can vary widely by product and brand. If the product only lists “cannabinoids” be cautious, the amount of CBD is unknown.
Also be aware that in 2015 and 2016, the FDA issued warning letters because the products did not have the level of CBD as claimed. Warning Letters and Test Results for Cannabidiol-Related Products Some were higher, but most were lower. ConsumerLab.com, an independent laboratory which tests numerous products, also tested some of the more popular CBD products. They also found differences between labels and actual CBD content. They also tested for lead, cadmium, and arsenic contamination and analyzed for cost. Some information is available at ConsumerLab.com, but there’s a fee to obtain the actual product test results. When researching products look for emphasis on quality control, farming practices, and third party testing for product homogeneity, cannabinoid quantitation, and screening for potential harmful contaminants.
CBD oil products are sold with recommended dosages or servings, but experimentation is often best to determine the amount required for an individual’s desired effect. Recommended product dosages are typically low. The dosages in most clinical trials were high, 200 mg or more a day.
Lastly, just because a product contains CBD doesn’t mean the body can use it. See discussion on bioavailability below.
The cannabinoids produced in the body (endo means internal, from within). This occurs naturally in all mammals, without introduction of phtyocannabinoids from cannabis. Phytocannabinoids are a similar in chemical structure to our own endocannabinoids.
Endocannabinoid system (ECS)
A complex signaling network in the human body that uses cannabinoids to control various bodily processes by interacting with different receptors and regulatory enzymes. Most of our knowledge of the ECS is fairly recent, starting in the 1980s. The ECS has two receptors for cannabinoids: CB1 receptors and CB2 receptors.
THC and CBD affect the endocannabinoid system in different ways
CB1 receptors are found all around the body in the nervous system and nerves, but mostly in the brain. CB1 receptors in the brain deal with coordination and movement, pain, emotions and mood, thinking, appetite, and memories, among others. THC attaches mostly to CB1 receptors
CB2 receptors are mostly found in the immune system, effecting inflammation and pain. It used to be thought that CBD acts on these CB2 receptors, but it appears now that CBD does not act on either receptor directly. Instead, it seems to influence the body to use more of its own cannabinoids. CBD actually has a very low affinity for both CB1 and CB2 receptors but acts as an indirect antagonist of their agonists. If CBD did attach to CB1 and CB2 receptors it would have the same addictive potential of THC. But since its mechanism of action is not dependent on receptors associated with addiction, CBD is not addictive or habit-forming.
It is theorized that certain health conditions are the result of the body not producing enough endocannabinoids and/or that there are not enough receptors for the endocannabinoid system to function properly. A body that’s unbalanced like this results in functions that aren’t being regulated properly thus manifesting disease. This is called Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency (CECD). CECD has been linked to migraines, fibromyalgia and irritable bowel syndrome. See Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency (CECD): can this concept explain therapeutic benefits of cannabis in migraine, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and other treatment-resistant conditions? (Russo EB, 2008)
The endocannabinoid system is responsible for regulating the release of neurotransmitters, so diseases that are attributed to their dysfunction, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, may also be related to CECD. According to this article, Cannabis reverses aging processes in the brain, study suggests scientists discovered that the brain ages much faster when mice do not possess any functional CB1 receptors. From the article,
“With increasing age, the quantity of the cannabinoids naturally formed in the brain reduces,” says Prof. Zimmer. “When the activity of the cannabinoid system declines, we find rapid ageing in the brain.”
About our CBD product
Here at PureDrop Healing we partnered with the leading manufacturers in Europe to offer our customers only the best CBD can offer.All of our products are tested by a third party lab.We have the highest quality CBD on the european market.The variety of our products include CBD Oil,CBD capsules,CBD Spray and our CBD Sport with 0% THC.